Information Security Vs. Cybersecurity: What’s The Difference?

A Comprehensive Guide by Sentinel Africa Consulting


The terms information security (infosec) and cybersecurity are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion due to their overlapping nature. While cybersecurity is a subset of information security, they each encompass unique areas of focus and require distinct skill sets.

Even within professional circles, the distinction between infosec and cybersecurity remains a topic of debate. Clarifying their definitions helps to appreciate the unique aspects and interactions of these fields.

Defining Information Security and Cybersecurity

According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), both information security and cybersecurity are recognized as separate career fields with some overlap. Here’s a closer look at each:

Information Security

Informaton security

NIST defines information security as the practice of protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction. The primary aim is to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) of data.

Information security extends beyond digital data, encompassing all forms of information, including physical records. This broader scope differentiates it from cybersecurity, which is specifically concerned with digital data and systems.

Infosec professionals develop and implement policies and systems to protect information across various formats, ensuring robust protection measures are in place.



In today’s digital age, most organizational data is stored electronically, making cybersecurity essential. NIST defines cybersecurity as protecting electronic communications, services, and systems, including the data they contain, from cyber threats.

Cybersecurity focuses on defending digital data and systems against cyberattacks, such as malware, ransomware, and phishing. This field includes specialized areas like cloud security, network security, and critical infrastructure protection.

Key Differences

While both fields aim to protect information, information security is an umbrella term encompassing all forms of data protection. In contrast, cybersecurity is dedicated to safeguarding digital information and systems from cyber threats.

How Information Security and Cybersecurity Overlap

Despite their distinctions, infosec and cybersecurity share common practices and principles, particularly the CIA triad:

  1. Confidentiality: Ensuring only authorized individuals can access and modify information. For example, online retailers protect customers’ personal data and payment information.
  2. Integrity: Maintaining the accuracy and reliability of information. Secure data transmission between retailers and banks ensures no discrepancies in transactions.
  3. Availability: Guaranteeing information is accessible when needed. Customers must be able to access their bank account information at any time.

Education and Skills

Careers in both fields typically require a bachelor’s degree in cybersecurity, computer science, or a related field. Professionals must be proficient with database management, network monitoring, and cybersecurity technologies.

Common Careers

Information Security Roles:

  • Information Security Analyst: Plan and implement security measures, monitor networks, and report on security metrics.
  • Information Security Specialist: Develop risk management frameworks, conduct risk assessments, and assist with database access.
  • IT Security Consultant: Assess and recommend improvements for an organization’s security posture, focusing on data privacy and cybersecurity management.

Cybersecurity Roles:

  • Cybersecurity Analyst: Detect and respond to cyber threats, develop awareness training, and perform forensic analysis.
  • Cybersecurity Engineer: Develop and maintain security procedures and firewalls, monitor security breaches, and design security controls.
  • Penetration Tester: Conduct simulated attacks to identify vulnerabilities and suggest security improvements to prevent actual breaches.


Understanding the nuances between information security and cybersecurity is crucial for developing effective protection strategies in today’s digital world. While the fields are closely related, recognizing their differences and shared practices helps organizations safeguard their information comprehensively.

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